Spontaneous ventilation can be assisted or replaced by delivering intermittent positive pressure to the airway or applying intermittent negative pressure to the chest wall. The concept of applying ventilatory support non-invasively has always been attractive, and because of their relative simplicity the development of these techniques preceded that of airway intubation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation.
The interface plays a crucial role in NIV with respect to comfort, to success or failure of NIV and to adverse effects, not least in the paediatric population. Interfaces available at present include nasal masks, nasal plugs or cannulas, oral interfaces, full facemasks and helmets. Nasal masks are more frequently chosen in children than in the adult population, even if the child is no longer an obligatory nose breather.
Though surgery offers to be the first stop for OSA, beyond this option, the treatment is more supported by home ventilation. The children various other disorders like neuromuscular diseases are at stake of their breathing control, where NIV plays a very important role.